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Corba Interview Questions

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CORBAs goal is to address interoperability at various levels. There is a history to this.
In the early versions of CORBA, interoperability between platforms and programming languages was addressed. This included the standardization of IDL and the mapping of IDL to a programming language. While a client and server developed with the same vendors ORB could talk to one another, a client and server developed with different vendors? ORBs were not likely to interoperate.
CORBA 2.0 introduced interoperability between different ORB vendors. This resulted from the introduction of a standard wire protocol called General Inter-ORB Protocol (GIOP), and the incarnation for GIOP for the internet, known as Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP). So CORBA 2.0 compliant ORBs will interoperate. This means a client using ORB vendor A can talk to a server using ORB vendor B.
Interoperability is actually a broader issue than just have ORB vendor A talking to ORB vendor B. Fuller interoperability means that various services interoperate. For example, while a CORBA object can talk to a DCOM object via a protocol bridge, can the CORBA Transaction Service talk to the Microsoft Transaction Service to have a seamless transaction between systems? This broader interoperability at the service level is being addressed now. 

Yes, but we can fake it pretty easily.
While CORBA does support a deferred synchronous request/response, it does not directly support distributed requests with a callback driven response. A callback driven response allows an application to perform an operation on a distributed object, associate a callback with the response, continue with other processing. When the server responds, the associated callback is automatically executed within the original caller?s application. 

There are a number of ways to tune CORBA applications for better performance. Remember that distribution should only be used if a reason to do so exists. Distribution does not make sense for the sake of distribution. If distribution does not serve a purpose then it should be avoided. Avoiding excessive distribution can result in better performance. Care should be taken when introducing distribution into an applications object model. IDL interfaces can be tuned to minimize network latency. Invoking remote operations requires transmitting data across the network. Network performance is typically optimized by ensuring adequate bandwidth. Once the required bandwidth is achieved raw network performance cannot be increased. One key to tuning an IDL interface is to reduce the number of network transfers that need to occur. Calling an operation that returns 100 bytes might take 5 milliseconds. Calling an operation that returns 200 bytes of data might take around 6 milliseconds. Calling 2 operations that return 100 bytes might take a total of 10 milliseconds. One key to tuning IDL operations is to avoid implementing several get operations and to combine them into a single get operation which returns the appropriate combination of data. Caching results of remote operations can avoid network overhead associated with calling the same remote methods more than once. Many applications can perform remote operations upon startup rather than during normal usage. Users are often more willing to wait at startup time rather than during application usage. Many performance problems are associated with serialization and blocking conditions. For example, Let us assume that clients will be making remote operations to a single server. A single client?s request causes the server to block for a extended period of time, the entire client community might have to wait. Make sure that multiple distributed operations are not becoming serialized within a single server process. Utilize multiple server processes or threaded servers instead. 

CORBA does not directly support distributed reference counting. This was a conscious decision on the part of its designers. While CORBA does not directly support reference counting, it is possible to build reference counting into a particular distributed object architecture. This can be done through an explicit session management facility which can be exposed through factories or other remote interfaces. While it is possible to design reference counting into an application, it is the burden of the application designer/developer to ensure that such an approach is implemented correctly. 

No, it is infrastructure. Which is good because the history of high-level? one size fits all? architectures hasn't been very good, has it?
CORBA provides low level request/response communication. It also provides general services that are implemented on top of request/response communication. The actual architecture used within a given application is not defined by CORBA. CORBA leaves these decisions up the application architect.

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